Conrad Bibliography

National Museum of Broadcasting

To Preserve the Birthplace of the Broadcasting Industry

 

 

 

A Bibliography of Frank Conrad

David W. Kraeuter, Editor

 

 

Third Edition

 

 

 

 

 

Pittsburgh Antique Radio Society Monograph 1

 

© 2007 David W. Kraeuter

Copies available at www.lulu.com

 

 


 

Pittsburgh Antique Radio Society Monographs

 

1. A Bibliography of Frank Conrad, (Third Edition), 2007.

2. The U.S. Patents of Reginald A. Fessenden, (Second Edition), 2007.

3. A New Bibliography of Reginald A. Fessenden, (Second Edition), 2007.

4. The U.S. Patents of John H. Hammond, Jr., (Second Edition), 2007.

5. An Interview with Harold Beverage, Richard Brewster, (Second Edition), 2007.

6. Radio and Television Reminiscences: Raymond M. Bell in the Pittsburgh Oscillator,  (Third Edition), 2007.

7. Electronic Essays, David W. Kraeuter (Fifth Edition), 2007.

8. The U.S. Patents of Harold S. Black, Jack S. Kilby and Robert N. Noyce, (Second Edition), 2007.

9. The U.S. Patents of Stuart W. Seeley, (Second Edition), 2007.

10. Ten Patents from Radio History, David W. Kraeuter, 2007.

11. Frank Conrad’s Radio Patents, (Second Edition), 2007.

 

 


 

Contents

Foreword

Biographical Note

I. Articles And Papers By Conrad

II. Conrad's U. S. Patents

III. Conrad's British Patents

IV. Conrad's German Patents

V. Books Referring To Conrad

VI. Periodical Articles About Conrad Or His Work

VII. Newspaper Articles About Conrad Or His Work

VIII. Other Items

IX. Awards, Honors, Prizes, And Memberships

X. Bibliographic Problems

Patent Title Index

 


 

Foreword

This bibliography has two purposes: first, to make the information herein conveniently available and second, to facilitate finding items that have been overlooked so that they may be included in the next edition. Anyone having additions or corrections to make in the next edition is invited to write to the author at kraeuter@earthlink.net.

We thank Raymond Bell, Richard Brewster, Jim Chew, Alan S. Douglas, Tad Drogoski, G. Ray Fitterer, Richard J. Harris, Jr., John Haught, Jim Kreuzer, Bev Martin, and Todd Yeager for their help in preparing this bibliography.

We also thank the Science and Technology staff at the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh.

Biographical Note

Born in Pittsburgh on May 4, 1874, by age 16 Frank Conrad had quit school to work as a bench hand with the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company, his life-long employer.

Between 1898 and 1942 (the year after his death) Conrad received over 200 American, English and German patents on mechanical and electrical devices such as grenades, refrigerators, carburetors, radio transmitters and receivers, televisions, clocks, arc lamps, gear shifts, air conditioners, insulators, vacuum tubes, and electric meters. His experimentation with radio transmitting in 1919 and earlier helped Westinghouse found pioneer radio station KDKA. In the 1920s Conrad also did pioneering work which helped establish world-wide communications via short wave.

He served in the U. S. Army during the First World War, and was a lieutenant commander in the U. S. Naval Reserve. By 1921 he became Assistant Chief Engineer at Westinghouse, a title he held for the rest of his life. He died on December 11, 1941.

 



I. Articles And Papers By Conrad

"Battery Versus Magneto Ignition," Scientific American Supplement, Number 2094, February 19, 1916, p. 128.

"Commercial Development of the Mercury Rectifier" [Abstract of a paper read at the convention of the National Electric Light Association, Washington, D.C., June 4, 1907], Western Electrician (Chicago), Vol. 40, June 8, 1907, pp. 506-7.

"Connections for a Single-Phase Wattmeter on a Three-Phase, Three-Wire System," Electrical World, Vol. 54, No. 8, August 19, 1909, pp. 427-429.

"Electrical Equipment of Gasoline Automobiles," A paper presented at the 288th meeting of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. New York, November 14, 1913, pp. 2043-2075. [Includes discussion with Benjamin F. Bailey, Alexander Churchward, Frank Conrad, Almon W. Copley, Frederick S. Dellenbaugh, Jr., Kingston Forbes, Harold Goodwin, Jr., Leonard Kebler, John R. King, H. Ward Leonard, A. D. T. Libby, Alden L. McMurtry, Alfred E. Waller, and C. E. Wilson].

"Engineering Evolution of Electrical Apparatus; The History of the Arc Lamp" [With W. A. Darrah], Electric Journal, Vol. 12, 1915, pp. 517-521, 560-564; Vol. 13, 1916, pp. 103-108, 140-143.

"Frequency Meters," Electric Journal, Vol. 3, 1905, pp. 535-6.

"Observation Errors," Electric Journal, Vol. 2, 1905, pp. 709-10.

"Peculiarities of Pittsburgh Radio," Literary Digest, Vol. 80, No. 11, March 15, 1924, p. 93. Reprinted in Pittsburgh Oscillator, Vol. 4, No. 1, March, 1989, p. 8.

"Phase Angle Measurement" [Letter], Electrical World and Engineer, Vol. 33, No. 22, June 3, 1899, pp. 768-9.

"Radio Receiving Equipment," Institute of Radio Engineers. Proceedings, Vol. 10, December, 1922, pp. 426-39.

"Reminiscences of Old-Timers; Dr. Frank Conrad," Radio-Craft, Vol. 9, No. 9, March, 1938, p. 557.

"Short-wave Radio Broadcasting," Institute of Radio Engineers. Proceedings, Vol. 12, December, 1924, pp. 723-38; discussion, pp. 739-44.

"The Story of Short Waves," Science, Vol. 91, February 9, 1940, pp. 131-2. [Text of speech delivered by Conrad upon receiving the Gold Medal of the American Institute of the City of New York]. Reprinted in Pittsburgh Oscillator, Vol. 2, No. 4, December, 1987, pp. 5-7.


II. U. S. Patents Granted To Conrad

[Patent citations take this form: Description. Patent Number. Date. When known, the U. S. Patent Office's Official Gazette volume and page number are listed as volume:page].

Electric-arc lamp. 599,931. March 1, 1898. 82:1305. [With Harry P. Davis].

Electric meter and motor. 608,842. August 9, 1898. 84:914. [With Harry P. Davis].

Alternating-current-measuring equipment. 611,466. September 27, 1898. 84:1962. [With Harry P. Davis].

Alternating-current voltmeter. 611,592. September 27, 1898. 84:2007. [With Harry P. Davis].

Electrical measuring instrument. 627,908. June 27, 1899. [With Harry P. Davis].

Instrument for indicating the phase and frequency relations of alternating currents. 695,913. March 25, 1902. 98:2375.

Means for measuring the energy of three-phase alternating-current circuits. 716,867. December 30, 1902. 101:2834.

Ground-detector for electric circuits. 716,868. December 30, 1902. 101:2835.

Measuring the energy of three-phase alternating-current circuits. 717,496. December 30, 1902. 101:3084.

Prepayment electrical measuring device. 757,439. April 19, 1904. 109:1897.

Alternating-current wattmeter. 760,426. May 24, 1904. 110:87.

Circuit making and breaking relay. 780,024. January 17, 1905. 114:551.

Constant current regulator. 792,120. June 13, 1905. 116:1796.

Electrical measuring instrument. 794,395. July 11, 1905. 117:400.

Measuring instrument. 798,167. August 29, 1905. 117:2414.

Spring-abutment for measuring instruments. 798,168. August 29, 1905. 117:2415.

Switch for electric circuits. 803,212. October 31, 1905. 118:2358. [With Arthur B. Reynders].

Alternating-current system of control. 803,213. October 31, 1905. 118:2359.

Regulating means for systems of electrical distribution. 807,943. December 19, 1905. 119:2152. [With B. G. Lamme and C. F. Scott].

Transformer. 829,572. August 28, 1906. 123:2740.

Protective apparatus for electrical circuits. 840,478. January 8, 1907. 126:404. [With Harry P. Davis].

Protective apparatus for parallel transmission-lines. 840,479. January 8, 1907. 126:404. [With Harry P. Davis]

Transformer. 841,076. January 8, 1907. 126:700.

Alternating-current electrical apparatus. 853,226. May 14, 1907. 128:472. [With William M. Bradshaw].

Automatic synchronizer. 885,143. April 21, 1908. 133:1732.

Electric heating apparatus. 912,994. February 23, 1909. 139:740.

Voltage-regulator. 923,627. June 1, 1909. 143:176.

System for vapor electric apparatus. 931,114. August 17, 1909. 145:549.

System of distribution for mercury-vapor rectifiers. 931,115. August 17, 1909. 145:550.

Overload and reverse current relay device. 933,746. September 14, 1909. 146:266.

Overload and reverse current relay device. 934,390. September 14, 1909. 146:478.

Overload and reverse current relay device. 934,391. September 14, 1909. 146:478.

Electrical system. 934,596. September 21, 1909. 146:569.

Armature-winding. 954,614. April 12, 1910. 153:348.

Mercury-vapor rectifier. 969,525. September 6, 1910. 158:125.

Starting means for vapor-rectifying devices. 975,399. November 15, 1910. 160:504.

Carbureter. 1,002,646. September 5, 1911. 170:154.

Transformer. 1,005,163. October 10, 1911. 171:235.

Prepayment-meter. 1,017,082. February 13, 1912. 175:329.

System of electric-motor control. 1,024,557. April 30, 1912. 177:1075.

Metering system. 1,029,743. June 18, 1912. 179:642.

Recording measuring instrument. 1,031,041. July 2, 1912. 180:67.

Recording measuring instrument. 1,031,042. July 2, 1912. 180:68.

Wattmeter. 1,067,311. July 15, 1913. 192:553.

Impedance device for use with current-rectifiers. 1,075,404. October 14, 1913. 195:309. [With Y. Sakai].

Vapor electric device. 1,101,523. June 30, 1914. 203:1269.

Electrical apparatus. 1,106,368. August 11, 1914. 205:314.

System of distribution. 1,108,886. September 1, 1914. 206:7.

Current-rectifying device. 1,112,265. September 29, 1914. 206:1356.

Rectifier system. 1,112,266. September 29, 1914. 206:1357.

System of electrical distribution and regulation. 1,112,438. October 6, 1914. 207:8.

Electrical regulator. 1,122,693. December 29, 1914. 209:1478.

Transformer for use with current-rectifying apparatus. 1,123,248. January 5, 1915. 210:16.

Safety device for starting motors. 1,130,573. March 2, 1915. 212:257.

Overload and reverse current relay. 1,137,840. May 4, 1915. 214:41.

System of electrical distribution. 1,138,637. May 11, 1915. 214:358. [With Harry P. Davis].

Electric measuring instrument. 1,141,380. June 1, 1915. 215:106.

Storage-battery regulator. 1,146,924. July 20, 1915. 216:722.

Electrical regulator. 1,146,925. July 20, 1915. 216:722.

Regulator for electrical circuits. 1,146,926. July 20, 1915. 216:723.

Electrical regulator. 1,146,927. July 20, 1915. 216:723.

Pressure-gage. 1,150,016. August 17, 1915. 217:712.

Protective means for electrical systems. 1,155,133. September 28, 1915. 218:1068.

Means for protecting electrical systems. 1,155,134. September 28, 1915. 218:1069.

Electrically operated device. 1,158,898. November 2, 1915. 220:171.

Vapor electric device. 1,159,900. November 9, 1915. 220:557.

System of electrical distribution. 1,159,904. November 9, 1915. 220:558. [With Harry P. Davis].

Starting means for vapor electric devices. 1,166,186. December 28, 1915. 221:1333.

Gear-wheel. 1,167,742. January 11, 1916. 222:516.

Gear. 1,167,743. January 11, 1916. 222:517.

Spark-advancer. 1,171,594. February 15, 1916. 223:721.

Vehicle-lighting system. 1,171,595. February 15, 1916. 223:721.

Interrupter. 1,171,596. February 15, 1916. 223:721.

Starting mechanism for automobiles. 1,175,342. March 14, 1916. 224:505.

Plug-connector. 1.175,343. March 14, 1916. 224:505.

Electrical system. 1,191,158. July 18, 1916. 228:774.

Starting-electrode for vapor electric devices. 1,194,143. August 8, 1916. 229:505.

Vapor-rectifier. 1,204,411. November 14, 1916. 232:333.

Starting mechanism for automobiles. 1,215,490. February 13, 1917. 235:386. [With J. P. Nikonow].

Ignition system. 1,219,704. March 20, 1917. 236:699.

System of electrical distribution. 1,224,143. May 1, 1917. 238:10.

Cut-out. 1,229,719. June 12, 1917. 239:502.

Vapor current-rectifying device. 1,234,875. July 31, 1917. 240:1225.

Electrical system. 1,234,876. July 31, 1917. 240:1225.

Electrical system. 1,235,012. July 31, 1917. 240:1270.

Starting and ignition machine. 1,237,172. August 14, 1917. 241:560.

Electrical system. 1,246,056. November 13, 1917. 244:303.

Starting mechanism for automobiles. 1,246,057. November 13, 1917. 244:304.

Starting system for automobiles. 1,246,717. November 13, 1917. 244:500.

Starting motor for gas-engines. 1,246,718. November 13, 1917. 244:500.

Ignition mechanism. 1,248,459. December 4, 1917. 245:9.

Electrical system for automobiles. 1,248,460. December 4, 1917. 245:9.

Regulator and cut-out. 1,260,647. March 26, 1918. 248:883.

Electrical system. 1,260,648. March 26, 1918. 248:884.

Regulator and cut-out. 1,260,649. March 26, 1918. 248:884.

Vapor-arc rectifier. 1,264,276. April 30, 1918. 249:1031.

Priming device for internal-combustion engines. 1,271,670. July 9, 1918. 252:290.

Starting system for automobiles. 1,274,992. August 6, 1918. 253:185.

Ignition mechanism. 1,277,388. September 3, 1918. 254:16.

Vapor electric apparatus. 1,285,947. November 26, 1918. 256:749.

Side lamp for automobiles. 1,296,482. March 4, 1919. 260:148.

Gear-shifting mechanism. 1,296,483. March 4, 1919. 260:148.

Hand-grenade. 1,304,544. May 27, 1919. 262:492.

Radiotelegraphy system. 1,314,789. September 2, 1919. 266:59.

Starting mechanism for gas-engines. 1,317,269. September 30, 1919. 266:625.

Connector. 1,318,728. October 14, 1919. 267:265.

System of electrical distribution. 1,320,083. October 28, 1919. 267:570. [With Charles M. Moss, F. C. Hanker, and H. A. Travers].

Ignition system. 1,338,360. April 27, 1920. 273:708. [With J. S. Kinney].

Mounting for oil-pumps. 1,344,756. June 29, 1920. 275:863.

Ignition system. 1,352,431. September 14, 1920. 278:173.

Electrical ignition system. 1,352,432. September 14, 1920. 278:173.

Electrical ignition system. 1,352,433. September 14, 1920. 278:173.

Ignition system. 1,352,434. September 14, 1920. 278:173.

Gear-shift mechanism. 1,363,719. December 28, 1920. 281:677.

Starting mechanism for gas engines. 1,370,005. March 1, 1921. 284:48.

Starting mechanism for automobiles. 1,385,983. August 2, 1921. 289:4.

Starting mechanism for internal-combustion engines. 1,413,829. April 25, 1922.

Distributor for ignition apparatus. 1,417,717. May 30, 1922.

Apparatus for the receipt of wireless impulses. 1,456,867. May 29, 1923.

Spark-advancing mechanism. 1,466,272. August 28, 1923.

Radiomodulation system. 1,477,316. December 11, 1923.

Tuning system of antennae. 1,502,848. July 29, 1924.

Receiving circuit for the elimination of static disturbances. 1,513,223. October 28, 1924.

Aperiodic receiver system. 1,515,186. November 11, 1924.

Wireless telephone system. 1,528,047. March 3, 1925.

Regulator system. 1,543,696. June 30, 1925.

Signaling system. 1,563,342. December 1, 1925.

Volt-ampere meter. 1,571,234. February 2, 1926.

Wireless transmission system. 1,586,653. June 1, 1926.

Inductance device. 1,635,541. July 12, 1927.

Wireless antenna system. 1,640,534. August 30, 1927.

Polyphase plate-circuit excitation system. 1,645,291. October 11, 1927. [With John O. Nyman].

Radio transmitting system. 1,652,516. December 13, 1927.

Radio sending system. 1,654,322. December 27, 1927.

Wireless receiving cabinet. 1,655,985. January 10, 1928.

Telephone device. 1,660,864. February 28, 1928.

Wireless receiving set. 1,664,192. March 27, 1928.

Telephone device. 1,680,409. August 14, 1928.

Directive antenna system. 1,689,863. October 30, 1928.

Aerial system. 1,691,338. November 13, 1928.

Telephone circuits and apparatus. 1,693,401. November 27, 1928. [With A. Nyman].

Electrical measuring instrument. 1,695,917. December 18, 1928.

Inductor helix. 1,702,461. February 19, 1929.

Multiple electrode vacuum tube. 1,709,659. April 16, 1929.

Insulator. 1,730,124. October 1, 1929.

Duplex radio transmission system. 1,732,741. October 22, 1929.

Antenna system. 1,750,347. March 11, 1930.

Short-wave antenna. 1,768,666. July 1, 1930.

Frequency-control device. 1,768,888. July 1, 1930. [With John B. Coleman].

Modulation system. 1,799,974. April 7, 1931.

Telephone receiver. 1,819,499. August 18, 1931.

Condenser. 1,837,017. December 15, 1931.

Television system. 1,853,661. April 12, 1932.

Constant frequency generator. 1,872,896. August 23, 1932.

Radio relay system. 1,877,815. September 20, 1932.

Electric clock. 1,911,062. May 23, 1933.

Control device. 1,934,524. November 7, 1933.

Motion-picture apparatus. 1,939,031. December 12, 1933. [With Christian Aalborg].

Transmission system. 1,939,042. December 12, 1933.

Refrigerator. 1,982,375. November 27, 1934. [With Christian Aalborg].

Television apparatus. 1,991,082. February 12, 1935.

Motion picture apparatus. 2,023,065. December 3, 1935.

Motion picture apparatus. 2,032,116. February 25, 1936. [With C. Aalborg, O. B. French, and N. J. Collingswood].

Refrigerator apparatus. 2,056,646. October 6, 1936.

Radio communication system. 2,057,640. October 13, 1936.

Battery-charging system. 2,117,018. May 10, 1938. [With G. C. Goode].

Double-winding generator and rectifier combination. 2,117,019. May 10, 1938.

Copper-oxide rectifier. 2,117,020. May 10, 1938.

Time switch. 2,121,585. June 21, 1938.

Motion picture apparatus. 2,123,624. July 12, 1938. [With C. Aalborg and O. B. French].

Refrigerating apparatus. 2,148,412. February 21, 1939.

Receiving system. 2,151,747. March 28, 1939.

Alternating-current direct-current clock. 2,183,062. December 12, 1939.

Air conditioning system. 2,205,744. June 25, 1940.

Automobile battery charging system and flat rectifier therefor. 2,217,471. October 8, 1940.

Automotive generating system. 2,233,586. March 4, 1941.

Manufacture of copper-oxide rectifiers. 2,276,647. March 17, 1942. [With E. D. Wilson, C. C. Hein, and F. T. Hague].


III. Conrad's British Patents

[Note: the following applications for patents are listed for "F. Conrad" in the indexes for the Illustrated Official Journal (Patents). London, HMSO, 1898-1951. Most of them parallel or duplicate Conrad's U. S. patents. It is possible that other patents listed under Conrad's name in the U. S. system were listed under the name of his employer in the British system. British patent numbers begin a new series at the beginning of each year until 1915; thereafter they are numbered in one continuous series].

Electric lamps. 5,065. 1898. [With H. P. Davis].

Electric motors and meters. 10,705. May 10, 1898.

Alternating current measuring instruments. 20,440. September 27, 1898.

Electrical measuring instruments. 21,810. October 31, 1899.

Measuring energy of alternating current circuits. 18,314. September 13, 1901.

Alternating current circuits. 15,095. July 7, 1902.

Wattmeters. 3,540. February 12, 1904.

Prepayment electrical measuring instruments. 12,087. May 27, 1904.

Electric transformers. 136. January 3, 1905.

Protecting alternating current circuits. 352. January 7, 1905.

Electrical measuring instruments. 932. January 17, 1905.

Measuring alternating currents. 11,036. May 26, 1905.

Measuring alternating currents. 11,036a,b. May 26, 1905.

Alternating current electro-magnets. 7,490. March 28, 1906.

Overload &c. relay devices. 10,172. May 1, 1906.

Measuring electrical energy. 12,552. May 30, 1907.

Voltage regulators. 15,441. July 4, 1907.

Switching &c. devices. 20,676. September 17, 1907.

Armature winding. 22,833. October 16, 1907.

Electric current motors. 23,037. October 18, 1907.

Electric relays. 24,192. November 11, 1908.

Electric transformers. 26,555. December 8, 1908.

Carburettors [sic]. 3,768. February 15, 1909.

Electric transformers. 7,630. March 30, 1909.

Vapor current rectifying-devices. 27,686. December 9, 1911.

Starting vapour-electric devices. 37. January 1, 1912.

Vapour-electric current-rectifying apparatus. 622. January 8, 1913.

Vapour electric devices. 12,471. May 28, 1913.

Starting electrodes. 1,468. January 29, 1915.

Starting mechanism for internal combustion engines. 100,246. 1916.

Electric insulators. 166,113. 1921.

Sleeve-links. 193,371. 1923.

Frequency regulators for alternating currents circuits. 193,732. 1923.

Telephone receivers. 225,874. 1924

High frequency signalling. 246,496. 1926.

Piezo-electric frequency control. 277,330. 1927.

Time-indicating &c. systems. 287,182. 1928.

Radio-transmitting systems. 287,459. 1928.

Remote-metering systems. 294,115. 1928.

Air cooling and conditioning systems. 425,501.

Dry surface contact rectifiers. 518,202.

Dynamo-electric generators. 519,585.



IV. Conrad's German Patents

[Note: The following German patents are listed for Conrad in Fortschritte der Elecktro-technik, volumes 1 through 25, 1887-1911. DRP = Deutsches Reichs-Patent; EP = English Patent].

Messgeraethe fuer Wechselstrom. DRP. Kl 21. Nr. 105980. Patentbl. 1900. Ausz. S 9. 1 Abb. -- EP [1898] 20440 [With H. P. Davis].

Ausgleich von Temperaturschwankungen an elektrischen Messgeraethen. DRP. Kl 21 e. Nr. 121961 [With H. P. Davis].

Von der Wechselzahl unabhaengiges Wechselstrom-Messgeraeth. DRP. Kl 21 e. Nr. 124738 [With H. P. Davis].

Messgeraet zum Anzeigen des Phasen- oder Frequenzunterschiedes in zwei Wechselstrom- oder Mehrphasenstromkreisen. DRP. Kl 21 e. Nr. 137042.

Sicherheitsvorrichtung zur selbsttaetigen Unterbrechung eines Stromkreises bei Ueberschreitung der normalen Stromstaerke und bei Rueckstrom. DRP Kl 21 c. Nr. 197896.

Regelungseinrichtung fuer elektrische Stromkreise mit Sammlerbatterie und Zusatzmaschine. DRP Kl 21 c. Nr. 201070.

Elektrisches Registrierinstrument. DRP. Kl 21 e. Nr. 201832 [With MacGahan].

Einrichtung zur Spannungsregelung von Stromerzeugern mit Erregermaschine (die ausser der Haupt- zwei gegeneinander arbeitende Hilfswicklungen besitzt). DRP Kl 21 c. Nr. 204788.


V. Books Referring To Conrad

Aitken, Hugh G. J. Continuous Wave; Technology and American Radio, 1900-1932. Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1985, pp. 458-474, 512n.

Archer, Gleason L. Big Business and Radio. New York, American Historical Company, Inc., 1939, pp. 14, 20, 96f., 158, 253, 295, 355.

Archer, Gleason L. History of Radio to 1926. New York, American Historical Society, Inc., 1938, pp. 128, 199-204, 207, 209, 306, 323.

Banning, William Peck. Commercial Broadcasting Pioneer; the WEAF Experiment, 1922-1926. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1946, pp. 48, 50, 51n.

Barnouw, Erik. Tower in Babel; a History of Broadcasting in the United States. New York, Oxford University Press, 1966, Vol. 1: to 1933, pp. 66-72, 151-152, plate 4.

Barron, Lee D., Jr. Westinghouse Centennial 1886-1986; Baltimore Divisions & Contracts Management; a History. Baltimore, Barron's, 1985, pp. 51, 52, 61-99.

Beal, Bill, Alice Sapienza-Donnelly and Rick Harris, Jr. When Radio Was Young. Wilkinsburg Commission, Inc., 1995.

Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc. A History of Engineering and Science in the Bell System: The Early Years (1875-1925). New York, Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., 1975, pp. 426, 437.

Britannica Book of the Year, 1942, p. 196.

"Broadcasting in the United States," Encyclopedia Americana, 1986, Vol. 23, p. 150.

Clements, John. Pennsylvania Facts. Dallas, Clements Research, Inc., 1987, p. 343.

Codel, Martin, ed., Radio and Its Future. New York, Harper and Brothers, 1930, pp. 5, 6, 26, 62, 204.

"Conrad, Frank," Encyclopedia Britannica, 1987, Vol. 3, p. 547.

Dictionary of American Biography, Supplement 3, pp. 184-185.

Dictionary of American History, (1976), Volume II, p. 424.

Douglas, George H. Early Days of Radio Broadcasting. Jefferson, NC, McFarland, 1987, pp. 16-22, 39, 70, 113, 135, 155, 169.

Douglas, Susan J. Inventing American Broadcasting, 1899-1922. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987, pp. 299-300.

Dunlap, Orrin E., Jr. Communications in Space. NY, Harper & Row, 1970, pp. 33-34.

Dunlap, Orrin E., Jr. Radio's 100 Men of Science. New York, Harper and Brothers, 1944, pp. 140, 180-183.

Encyclopedia of American Biography, Vol. 18, 1945, pp. 247-249.

Encyclopedia of American Journalism. New York, Facts on File, 1983, p. 91.

First 25 Years of RCA. New York, RCA, 1944, p. 20.

Floherty, John J. Behind the Microphone. New York, J. B. Lippincott, 1944, pp. 24, 26-28.

Gagetta, Vince. Pittsburgh; Fulfilling Its Destiny. Northridge, CA, Windsor Publications, Inc., 1986, pp. 610-611.

Goldsmith, Alfred N. and Austin C. Lescarboura. This Thing Called Broadcasting. New York, Holt, 1930, pp. 18-20.

Green, Abel and Joe Laurie, Jr. Show Biz; Vaude to Video. New York, Henry Holt and Company, 1951, p. 231.

Grinder, Robert E. and George H. Fathauer. Radio Collector's Directory and Price Guide. Scottsdale, AZ, Ironwood Press, 1986, pp. 7-11.

Harper, Frank C. Pittsburgh of Today. New York, American Historical Society, Inc., 1931, Vol. 4, pp. 484-485.

Head, Sydney W. Broadcasting in America. 3rd ed. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1976, pp. 108-109.

Inventors and Discoverers; Changing Our World. Washington, D.C., National Geographic Society, 1988, p. 194.

It Started Hear. [KDKA's 50th Anniversary Publication.] Pittsburgh, KDKA?, 1970.

Johnson, David and Betty. Guide to Old Radios. Radnor, Pa., Wallace-Homestead Book Co., pp. 29, 31.

Kraeuter, David W., ed. Frank Conrad’s Radio Patents: The Complete Texts. Pittsburgh Antique Radio Society, 1990. Second edition (2007) available at www.lulu.com

Lamme, Benjamin G. Autobiography. New York, Putnam, 1926, pp. 90, 126.

Landry, Robert J. This Fascinating Radio Business. Indianapolis, Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1946, pp. 38-39.

Lorant, Stefan. Pittsburgh; the Story of an American City. New York, Doubleday, 1964, pp. 322-324, 477, 481, 488.

Lyons, Eugene. David Sarnoff. New York, Harper and Brothers, 1966, pp. 97, 98, 123.

Maclaurin, William Rupert. Invention and Innovation In the Radio Industry. New York, Macmillan, 1949, pp. 55, 98, 112, 174; plate opposite p. 75.

Men of Science; 15 Stories of Scientific Advances and the Men Who Helped Make Them. Pittsburgh, Westinghouse, 1946, pp. 13-15.

Moore, D. H. Vintage Radio Identification Sketch-Books. Palo Alto, CA, Editorial Group, Ltd., 1985, Vol. 1, p. 71.

Morris, Lloyd. Not So Long Ago. New York, Random, 1949, pp. 420, 436-439.

Mulkearn, Lois. Traveler's Guide to Historic Western Pennsylvania. Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh, 1954, pp. 70-71.

National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, Vol. 35, pp. 178-179.

Obituaries On File, New York, Facts On File, 1979, p. 123.

Oliver, John W. History of American Technology. New York, Ronald Press Co., 1956, pp. 540-542.

Pennsylvania; a Guide to the Keystone State. New York, Oxford University Press, 1940, p. 53.

"Pennsylvania. Communication," World Book Encyclopedia, 1981, Vol. 15, pp. 236-237.

"Radio and Television Broadcasting," Academic American Encyclopedia, 1986, Vol. 16, p. 54.

Rosen, Philip T. Modern Stentors; Radio Broadcasters and the Federal Government, 1920-1934. Westport, CT, Greenwood Press, l980, p. 16.

Settel, Irving. Pictorial History of Radio. New York, Citadel Press, 1960, pp. 34-36.

Shurick, E. P. J. First Quarter-Century of Radio Broadcasting. Kansas City, MO, Midland Publishing Company, 1946, pp. 7, 13-17, 56.

Slate, Sam J. and Joe Cook. It Sounds Impossible. New York, Macmillan Company, 1963, pp. 14, 18.

Snyder, Wilbert E. Achievement in Radio; Seventy Years of Radio Science at National Bureau of Standards. Washington, D.C., Government Printing Office, 1988, pp. 120-121, 180-183.

Sterling, Christopher H. and John M. Kittross. Stay Tuned. Belmont, CA, Wadsworth, 1978, pp. 42, 59-60.

Stryker, Roy and Mel Seidenberg. Pittsburgh Album 1758-1958. Pittsburgh, PA, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 1959, p. 74.

30 Years of Pioneering and Progress In Radio and Television. New York, RCA, 1949, p. 11.

Tyler, Poyntz, (ed.). Television and Radio. New York, Wilson, 1961, pp. 8-9.

Vernoff, Edward and Rima Shore. International Dictionary of 20th Century Biography. New York, New American Library, 1987, p. 150.

Waldrop, Frank C. and Joseph Borkin. Television; a Struggle For Power. New York, William Morrow and Company, 1938, pp. 171, 180.

Webster's Biographical Dictionary. Springfield, G. & C. Merriam Company, 1980, p. 341.

Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co. Handbook of Westinghouse Watthour Meters. 1928? [Photograph of Davis and Conrad round-type wattmeter], p. 14.

Westinghouse Radio Stations Inc. [Pamphlet]. Westinghouse, 1948. No pagination.

White, Llewellyn. American Radio. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1947, pp. 12, 16.

Who Was Who In America. Chicago, Marquis Who's Who, 1943, Vol. 1, p. 252.

Who Was Who In American History--Science and Technology. Chicago, Marquis Who's Who, 1976, p. 124.

Wilson, Mitchell. American Science and Invention. New York, Simon and Schuster, 1954, p. 370.

World Who's Who In Science. Chicago, Marquis Who's Who, 1968, p. 364.


VI. Periodical Articles About Conrad Or His Work

"Amateur Radio Stations: 8XK, Pittsburgh, PA," QST, Vol. 4, No. 2, September, 1920, front cover and pp. 32-34.

Armagnat, H. "Appareils de Mesures," L'Eclairage Electrique, Vol. 23, April 28, 1900, pp. 130-140.

Armagnat, H. "Compteurs Pour Courants Alternatifs," L'Eclairage Electrique, Vol. 24, July 21, 1900, pp. 92-97.

Arnold, Richard. "Westinghouse, G.E., R.C.A. and the Aeriola/Radiola Senior," Antique Radio Classified, Vol 5, No. 10, October, 1988, pp. 4-5.

"Automatic Control of Rotary Converters," Western Electrician, Vol. 38, January 20, 1906, p. 53.

Barr, Kay. "KDKA Makes History," Greater Pittsburgh, Vol. 18, No. 7, November, 1937, pp. 17, 37 and cover.

Bernsley, J. T. "Chronological History of Radio," Radio-Craft, Vol. 9, No. 9, March, 1938, pp. 554-555, 642-647.

Campbell, Howard E., D. G. Little, and Lee de Forest. "The 'Pioneer Broadcaster,'" Institute of Radio Engineers. Proceedings, Vol 13, 1925, pp. 123-124.

"Circuit-Making and Breaking Relay," Electrical Review (New York), Vol. 46, February 4, 1905, p. 209.

Cook, W. Franklin. "Romance of Radio," Horn Speaker, Vol. 15, No. 7, September, 1986, p. 2.

Devon, Ann. "From Crystal Sets to Crooners," Literary Digest, Vol. 117, March 31, 1934, p. 36.

"Dr. Frank Conrad," Radio-Craft, Vol. 9, No. 9, March, 1938, p. 557.

"Dr. Frank Conrad awarded 1936 A.I.E.E. Lamme Medal," Electronics, Vol. 10, No. 3, March, 1937, cover and p. 1.

Dreher, Carl. "How the Wasteland Began," Atlantic Monthly, Vol. 217, February, 1966, pp. 53-58.

Dunlap, Orrin E., Jr. "A Radio Pioneer Steps Onward," Scientific American, Vol. 137, October, 1927, pp. 320-322.

"Edison Medal is Presented to Dr. Frank Conrad," Electric Journal, Vol. 28, No. 3, March, 1931, pp. 144-145, 156.

"Edison Medal Presented to Dr. Frank Conrad," Electrical Engineering, Vol. 50, March, 1931, pp. 216-218.

"8XK," QST, Vol. 4, No. 4, November, 1920, p. 8.

"ENGINEER: Lamme Medal Award Recalls First `Big Broadcast'," Newsweek, Vol. 9, March 13, 1937, pp. 35-36.

"Frank Conrad," Institute of Radio Engineers. Proceedings, Vol. 16, 1928, pp. 6-7.

"Frank Conrad Awarded Lamme Medal By American Institute Of Electrical Engineers," Westinghouse Magazine, April, 1937, pp. 2-3.

"Frank Conrad, Edison Medalist 1930," Electrical Engineering, Vol. 53, No. 5, May, 1934, p. 818.

"Frank Conrad to Receive Lamme Medal," American Institute of Electrical Engineers. Transactions, Vol. 56, 1937, pp. 395-396.

Harris, Richard J., Jr. "The Story of Frank Conrad and His Garage Workshop," Pittsburgh Oscillator, Vol. 2, No. 2, June, 1987, pp. 4-6. Reprinted in Niagara Frontier Wireless Association. Chronicle, January, 1988?, pp. 16-21.

Haught, John. "The Doctor Was A Ham--8XK," Pittsburgh Oscillator, Vol. 3, No. 3, September, 1988, pp. 4-7.

Hewitt, John. "Convincing the Experts; How Frank Conrad Sold the Idea of Short-Wave Radio Broadcasting," Westinghouse Magazine, January, 1937, pp. 23-26.

"Home of Early Radio Experiments," Radio News, Vol. 12, April, 1931, p. 870.

"Institute Award," Institute of Radio Engineers. Proceedings, Vol. 13, 1925, p. 676.

"Institute Notes and Related Activities," Institute of Radio Engineers. Proceedings, Vol. 16, 1928, p. 1446.

"January Meeting of Board of Direction," Institute of Radio Engineers. Proceedings, Vol. 15, 1927, p. 68.

"KDKA 'cowboy' rode airwaves in '20s," Passages (News for Westinghouse Retirees), Vol. 7, No. 1, First Quarter 1989, p. 8.

Kintner, S. M. "History of Radio," Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine. Vol. 9, No. 2, April, 1926, pp. 65-89. [Text of paper read before the Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania, November 23, 1925].

Kintner, S. M. "Pittsburgh's Contributions to Radio," Institute of Radio Engineers. Proceedings. Vol. 20, No. 12, December, 1932,  pp. 1849-1862.

Kraeuter, David. "Some People Are Never Satisfied," Pittsburgh Oscillator, Vol. 3, No. 1, March, 1988, pp. 5-8. [List of Conrad's U.S. patents].

Kraeuter, David. "Who Was This Frank Conrad, Anyhow?" Antique Radio Classified, Vol. 5, No. 1, January, 1988, pp. 4-5.

"Lamme Medal Awarded to Frank Conrad," Electrical Engineering, Vol. 56, March, 1937, p. 388.

"Lamme Medal for 1936 Presented to Doctor Frank Conrad," Electrical Engineering, Vol. 56, August, 1937, p. 1043-1044.

Lessem, N. H. "Growth of Broadcasting," Radio-Craft, Vol. 9, No. 9, March, 1938, p. 542-545, 606-607.

Little, Donald G. "Dr. Conrad founds KDKA," American Heritage, Vol. 6, No. 5, August 1955, pp. 71-73.

"Looking back at early KDKA history," Passages (News for Westinghouse Retirees), Vol. 7, No. 1, First Quarter 1989, p. 7.

MacGahan, P. "New Form of Induction Instrument," Electric Journal, Vol. 4, February, 1907, pp. 113-117.

Nagle, Joan. "Tuned in and turned on," Passages (News for Westinghouse Retirees), Fall, 1987, p. 9. Same reprinted in Westinghouse WTSSD Bulletin, January 18, 1988.

"New Designs for Alternating-current Electromagnets," Elektrotechnik und Maschinenbau, Vol. 24, November 4, 1906, pp. 899-900.

"New Special Wave Broadcasting Station Opened," Westinghouse Electric News, Vol. 10, No. 8, August, 1924, pp. 1, 5, 16.

[Obituary], Electrical Engineering, Vol. 61, January, 1942, pp. 48-49.

[Obituary], Electrical World (News edition), Vol. 116, December 20, 1941, p. 1979.

[Obituary], Institute of Radio Engineers. Proceedings, Vol. 30, February, 1942, p. 109.

"Personalities in Industry," Scientific American, Vol. 157, November, 1937, p. 259.

Pfaltz, Albert. "KDKA Radio's New 500 Horsepower Voice," Radio News, Vol. 12, April, 1931, pp. 872-873, 926, 933.

[Portrait], Electrical World, (News edition), Vol. 107, March 6, 1937, p. 820.

[Portrait], Radio Broadcast, Vol. 4, March, 1924, p. 361.

"Portrait of the Month," Greater Pittsburgh, Vol. 17, No. 11, March, 1937, frontispiece, p. 25.

"Presentation of the Liebmann Memorial Prize," Institute of Radio Engineers. Proceedings, Vol. 15, 1927, pp. 76-77.

"Radio-Movies In The Home," Literary Digest, Vol. 98, September 1, 1928, pp. 18-19.

Richard, G. "Les Lampes A Arc," L'Eclairage Electrique, Vol. 15, June 18, 1898, pp. 487-494.

Sakai, Y. "F. Conrad's Self-sustaining Transformer Mercury Rectifier," Electric Journal, Vol. 7, March, 1910, pp. 216-224.

Sarnoff, David. "Presentation of the Gold Medal of the American Institute of the City of New York," Science, Vol. 91, February 9, 1940, pp. 129-131.

"Station KDKA Becomes World Broadcaster," Westinghouse Electric News, Vol. 10, No. 3, March, 1924, pp. 2-3.

"Still Pioneering," Westinghouse Magazine, February, 1930, pp. 18, 20.

"Story of Amateur Radio," Radio-Craft, Vol. 9, No. 9, March, 1938, pp. 562, 618.

"Strays," QST, Vol. 4, No. 5, December, 1920, p. 48.

Swetnam, George. "History's Unweeded Garden: Common Errors in Western Pennsylvania History," Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine, Vol. 61, No. 2, April, 1978, pp. 97-116.

"Trick Watch: First Radio Broadcasting Followed Founder's Time Wager in Pittsburgh," Literary Digest, Vol. 123, March 13, 1937, pp. 19-20; Same abridged in Reader's Digest, Vol. 30, May, 1937, pp. 61-62.

"Tuned in and turned on: Dick Brewster and the Pittsburgh Antique Radio Society," NTSD Matrix, Third quarter, 1987, pp. 16-17.

"Ubiquitous Mr. Conrad," Fortune, Vol. 17, February, 1938, pp. 50-55.

"Vice Presidents Elected Directors," Westinghouse Electric News, Vol. 10, No. 7, July, 1924, pp. 5, 16.

"Who's Who in Amateur Wireless," QST, February, 1921, pp. 39, 45, 48.


VII. Newspaper Articles About Conrad Or His Work

[Note: Because very few newspapers are ever indexed, locating particular articles in them is a very haphazard process. There are probably dozens of newspaper articles referring to Conrad that are not listed in this bibliography. New York Times citations take this form: Date, (Section, if given) page:column.]

Bayler, Murray. "Red Brick Garage and a Bet Produce a Miracle," (Pittsburgh Landmarks--No. XII), Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, November 11, 1943, p. 21.

Bein, Barbara and Janet K. Wesley. "New group fine tunes passion for old radios," Pittsburgh Press, January 8, 1987, pp. E8-E9.

Bennett, Marcia. "Radio Days," Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (North), August 18, 1988, pp. 13-14.

Bennett, Marcia. "Radio Days," Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (South), August 18, 1988, p. 21.

Bennett, Marcia. "Radio Days," Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (East), August 18, 1988, p. ?

"Broadcasting Celebrates Twenty Years Of Progress," New York Times, November 3, 1940, (IX) 12:1.

"Conrad Gets Lamme Medal," Pittsburgh Sun-Telegraph, March 1, 1937, p. 7.

"Conrad Was First to `Broadcast' And First to Employ That Word," Pittsburgh Press, October 30, 1941, p. 17.

Dedo, Maryann Gogniat, "KDKA pioneered commercial broadcasting,"

Greensburg Tribune (Home and Hobby), June 25, 1989, p.3

"Diamond-Studded Medal Rewards Radio Pioneer," Pittsburgh Press, October 1, 1940, p. 26.

"Dr. Conrad To Get Engineering Honor," New York Times, March 1, 1937, 17:6.

"Dr. Frank Conrad," Pittsburgh Sun-Telegraph, December 12, 1941, p. 24.

"Dr. Frank Conrad--Communications Genius," Wilkinsburg Progress, August 29, 1957, pp. 1-?

"Dr. Frank Conrad, Discoverer of Radio Broadcasting, Is To Be Finally Honored Here," Wilkinsburg Gazette, July 26, 1956, pp. 1-2.

"Dr. Frank Conrad, Radio Pioneer, Dies," New York Times, December 12, 1941, 25:1.

"Dual Broadcasting System Invented By Pioneer At KDKA," New York Times, January 22, 1928, (IX) 16:4.

"Engineer Receives Science Degree," New York Herald Tribune, March 11, 1928, p. ?

"Fact a Day About Pittsburgh; Pioneer in Radio Broadcasting," Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, September 16, 1927, p. 6.

 Fanning, Win. "Forty Years of Broadcasting," Pittsburgh Post-Gazette Sunday Magazine, October 30, 1960, pp. 22-23.

Fanning, Win. "Thrill of Radio," Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, November 26, 1958, p. 44.

Fanning, Win. "World's first radio station marking 60th year," Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, November 12, 1980, p. 27.

"Father of Radio Broadcasting; Dr. Frank Conrad, Wilkinsburg's Radio Pioneer, Began Career As Bench-hand," Wilkinsburg Progress, September 4, 1957, pp. 14, 17.

"First Radio Advertiser Found Practice `Too Much Expense and Effort' So Quit," Pittsburgh Press, October 30, 1941, p. 18.

"First Radio Announcer Recalls Early Days," Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, November 2, 1961, p. 47.

"For Synchronizing Radio Broadcasts," New York Times, January 18, 1930, 12:3.

"Frank Conrad, Famed Radio Pioneer, Dies," Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, December 12, 1941, p. 5.

"Frank Conrad Gets 1930 Edison Medal," New York Times, January 29, 1931, 4:2.

Holsopple, Barbara, "Good Old Days of Atwater Kent," Pittsburgh Press, March 1, 1970, pp. 16-18.

Horn, Les. "Wife Of Radio's Inventor Says It Is Here To Stay," Wilkinsburg Progress, August 15, 1957, p. ?

"KDKA Chronology Is History Of Radio," Pittsburgh Press, October 30, 1941, pp. 15, 20.

Kennedy, T. R., Jr., "Early Short-Wave Episode Is Recalled," New York Times, December 21, 1941, (IX) 12:1.

"New Antenna Helps In Re-Broadcasting," New York Times, August 7, 1925, 4:5.

"Phonograph's Music Heard On Radiophones," New York Times, December 26, 1919, 3:6.

[Portrait], New York Times, October 30, 1927, (X) 18:3.

[Portrait with Westinghouse Television Machine], New York Times, September 16, 1928, (XII) 2:3.

"Predictions of Father of Broadcasting Came True Decade After He Saw Future," Pittsburgh Press, October 30, 1941, p. 22.

"Radio Broadcasts Talks 7,000 Miles Without Wire's Aid," New York Times, March 8, 1924, 1:4.

"Science Honors Dr. Conrad," Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, December 15, 1930, p. 6.

"Scott Medal to Frank Conrad," New York Times, November 19, 1933, (II) 3:6.

"State markers identify KDKA as 1st commercial radio station," Pittsburgh Press, July 1, 1989, p. B7.

Steinhauser, Si. "Frank Conrad . . . A Friend's Story Of A Radio Pioneer," Pittsburgh Press, October 18, 1970, (Family Magazine), pp. 58-61.

Steinhauser, Si. "KDKA and National Broadcasting Birthdays Near," Pittsburgh Press, October 30, 1941, pp. 15, 21.

Steinhauser, Si. "November Is Radio's 'Favorite Month' of Historic Events," Pittsburgh Press, October 28, 1945, p. 32.

Swetnam, George. "64 Years of Radio; Here's Who Really Started It," Pittsburgh Press Family Magazine, January 24, 1971, pp. 12-13.

"To Get Science Awards," New York Times, January 26, 1940, 12:6.

"Two Get Awards For Aid To Science," New York Times, February 2, 1940, 19:2.

"Westinghouse Scientist Is Awarded Edison Medal," Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, December 13, 1930, p. 2.

"Westinghouse to Mark The Birthplace of Radio Broadcasting," Wilkinsburg Gazette, October 31, 1957, p. ?

"Wife of Radio Pioneer Died In Oakland," Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, November 10, 1961, p. 25.

"Wins $500 Award For Radio Studies," New York Times, January 19, 1926, 30:4.

"Wins 1930 Edison Medal," New York Times, December 13, 1930, 3:2.

"World Mourns Frank Conrad Who Died Yesterday In Miami; He Was The Father Of Radio," Wilkinsburg Gazette, December 12, 1941, pp. 1, 6.


VIII. Other Items

"Air Concert 'Picked Up' By Radio Here," [Advertisement], Pittsburgh Sun, September 29, 1920, p. 7.

"Allegheny County Firsts," Greater Pittsburgh Consumer Yellow Pages, 1987, p. 9.

"Birthplace of Radio Broadcasting," Plaque mounted at Penn Avenue and Peebles Street, Wilkinsburg, PA., bearing the following text:

BIRTHPLACE OF RADIO BROADCASTING

Here radio broadcasting was born. At this location, Dr. Frank Conrad, Westinghouse engineer and scientist, conducted experimental broadcasts which lead to the establishment of KDKA and modern radio broadcasting, and to the world's first scheduled broadcast, November 2, 1920. Dr. Frank Conrad 1874-1941.

"Conrad, Frank," [Death notice], Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, December 13, 1941, p. 21.

"Conrad, Frank," [Death notice], Pittsburgh Press, December 12, 1941, p. 57.

"Conrad, Frank," [Death notice], Pittsburgh Sun-Telegraph, December 12, 1941, p. 38.

Davis, Harry P. The History of Broadcasting in the United States. An address delivered before the Graduate School of Business Administration, Harvard University, April 21, 1928, pp. 1-24.

"Electrical Engineering Milestone," Plaque mounted at K Building in East Pittsburgh, bearing the following text:

Electrical Engineering Milestone

Westinghouse Radio Station KDKA

Westinghouse radio station KDKA was a world pioneer of commercial radio broadcasting, transmitting with a power of 100 watts on a wavelength of 300 meters. KDKA began scheduled programming with the Harding-Cox presidential election returns on November 2, 1920. A shed, housing studio and transmitter, was atop the K Building of the Westinghouse East Pittsburgh works. Conceived by H. P. Davis, broadcasting as a public service evolved from Frank Conrad's weekly experimental broadcasts over his amateur radio station 8XK, attracting many regular listeners who had wireless receiving sets.

June 1994

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

"Frank Conrad," Associated Press Sketch No. 1848, May 1, 1931. [Available at Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh. Pennsylvania Room].

"Frank Conrad," Plaque mounted at Penn Avenue and Peebles Street, Wilkinsburg, PA., bearing the following text:

Frank Conrad

(1874-1941)

At his garage workshop here in 1919-1920, Conrad made broadcasts over his amateur station, 8XK, which introduced the concept of commercial radio and led to the start of KDKA. For 37 years a Westinghouse engineer, he held over 200 patents.

Harris, Richard J., Jr. and Alice Sapienza-Donnelly. "Frank Conrad's Garage--Epitaph or Resurrection?" Various media. Pittsburgh, PA, 1988.

Little, Donald G. Reminiscences of Donald G. Little. [Unpublished typescript]. Columbia University. Oral History Research Office. Radio Unit, 1951, pp. 9-15, 18-22, 25, 30-40, 47-55, 57-65, 78, 85, 90-101.

Monroe, M. H. A Man, a Bet and a Garage. Paper presented before the Wilkinsburg Historical Society, September 16, 1974. [Available at Wilkinsburg Public Library].

"On the Air," Westinghouse, 1945. Film, 16mm, 22 minutes, sound, black and white.

Pittsburgh Oscillator; Newsletter of the Pittsburgh Antique Radio Society, Inc. Volume 1, Number 1--, May, 1986--.

Sapienza-Donnelly, Alice. Epitaph or Resurrection? Pittsburgh, 1972.

"Westinghouse Radio Receiving Equipment," [Advertisement], Wireless Age, Vol. 8, No. 8, May, 1921, p. 1.

Wilkinsburg Centennial, [leaflet], Wilkinsburg, PA, 1987, pp. 2-3.


IX. Awards, Honors, and Prizes

1925 Morris Liebmann Prize, Institute of Radio Engineers

1928 Doctor of Science, University of Pittsburgh

1930 Edison Medal, American Institute of Electrical Engineers

1933 John Scott Medal, City of Philadelphia

1936 Lamme Medal, American Institute of Electrical Engineers

1940 Gold Medal, American Institute of the City of New York

Modern Pioneer Award, National Association of Manufacturers

1953 Radio Hall of Fame

 

Memberships

American Association for the Advancement of Science

American Institute of Electrical Engineers

Army Ordnance Association

Institute of Radio Engineers, Fellow; Vice-President, 1927

Society of Automotive Engineers


X. Bibliographic Problems

1. Conrad is sometimes cited as the inventor of the pantograph trolley for electric trains, but we have found no patent in his name dealing with pantographs. Did Conrad receive a patent for this device?

2. A 250-word newspaper clipping titled "Conrad, Pioneer of Radio, Is Awarded Lamme Medal" is dated (by hand) March 1, 1937. In what newspaper was this article published?


Patent Title Index

Aerial system. 1,691,338.

Aeriola Junior. See Wireless receiving set. 1,664,192. 1928.

Air conditioning system. 2,205,744.

Alternating-current direct-current clock. 2,183,062.

Alternating-current electrical apparatus. 853,226.

Alternating-current-measuring equipment. 611,466.

Alternating-current system of control. 803,213.

Alternating-current voltmeter. 611,592.

Alternating-current wattmeter. 760,426.

Antenna system. 1,750,347.

Aperiodic receiver system. 1,515,186.

Apparatus for the receipt of wireless impulses. 1,456,867.

Armature-winding. 954,614.

Automatic synchronizer. 885,143.

Automobile battery charging system and flat rectifier therefor. 2,217,471.

Automotive generating system. 2,233,586.

Battery-charging system. 2,117,018.

Carbureter. 1,002,646.

Circuit making and breaking relay. 780,024.

Condenser. 1,837,017.

Connector. 1,318,728.

Constant current regulator. 792,120.

Constant frequency generator. 1,872,896.

Control device. 1,934,524.

Copper-oxide rectifier. 2,117,020.

Current-rectifying device. 1,112,265.

Cut-out. 1,229,719.

Directive antenna system. 1,689,863.

Distributor for ignition apparatus. 1,417,717.

Double-winding generator and rectifier combination. 2,117,019.

Duplex radio transmission system. 1,732,741.

Electric-arc lamp. 599,931. March 1, 1898.

Electric clock. 1,911,062.

Electric heating apparatus. 912,994.

Electric measuring instrument. 1,141,380.

Electric meter and motor. 608,842.

Electrical apparatus. 1,106,368.

Electrical ignition system. 1,352,432.

Electrical ignition system. 1,352,433.

Electrical measuring instrument. 627,908.

Electrical measuring instrument. 794,395.

Electrical measuring instrument. 1,695,917.

Electrical regulator. 1,122,693.

Electrical regulator. 1,146,925.

Electrical regulator. 1,146,927.

Electrical system. 934,596.

Electrical system. 1,191,158.

Electrical system. 1,234,876.

Electrical system. 1,235,012.

Electrical system. 1,246,056.

Electrical system. 1,260,648.

Electrical system for automobiles. 1,248,460.

Electrically operated device. 1,158,898.

Frequency-control device. 1,768,888.

Gear. 1,167,743.

Gear-shift mechanism. 1,363,719.

Gear-shifting mechanism. 1,296,483.

Gear-wheel. 1,167,742.

Ground-detector for electric circuits. 716,868.

Hand-grenade. 1,304,544.

Ignition mechanism. 1,248,459.

Ignition mechanism. 1,277,388.

Ignition system. 1,219,704.

Ignition system. 1,338,360.

Ignition system. 1,352,431.

Ignition system. 1,352,434.

Impedance device for use with current-rectifiers. 1,075,404.

Inductance device. 1,635,541.

Inductor helix. 1,702,461.

Instrument for indicating the phase and frequency relations of

alternating currents. 695,913.

Insulator. 1,730,124.

Interrupter. 1,171,596.

Manufacture of copper-oxide rectifiers. 2,276,647.

Means for measuring the energy of three-phase alternating-current

circuits. 716,867.

Means for protecting electrical systems. 1,155,134.

Measuring instrument. 798,167.

Measuring the energy of three-phase alternating-current circuits. 717,496.

Mercury-vapor rectifier. 969,525.

Metering system. 1,029,743.

Modulation system. 1,799,974.

Motion-picture apparatus. 1,939,031.

Motion picture apparatus. 2,023,065.

Motion picture apparatus. 2,032,116.

Motion picture apparatus. 2,123,624.

Mounting for oil-pumps. 1,344,756.

Multiple electrode vacuum tube. 1,709,659.

Overload and reverse current relay. 1,137,840.

Overload and reverse current relay device. 933,746.

Overload and reverse current relay device. 934,390.

Overload and reverse current relay device. 934,391.

Plug-connector. 1.175,343.

Polyphase plate-circuit excitation system. 1,645,291.

Prepayment electrical measuring device. 757,439.

Prepayment-meter. 1,017,082.

Pressure-gage. 1,150,016.

Priming device for internal-combustion engines. 1,271,670.

Protective apparatus for electrical circuits. 840,478.

Protective apparatus for parallel transmission-lines. 840,479.

Protective means for electrical systems. 1,155,133.

Radio communication system. 2,057,640.

Radio relay system. 1,877,815.

Radio sending system. 1,654,322.

Radio transmitting system. 1,652,516.

Radiomodulation system. 1,477,316.

Radiotelegraphy system. 1,314,789.

Receiving circuit for the elimination of static disturbances. 1,513,223.

Receiving system. 2,151,747.

Recording measuring instrument. 1,031,041.

Recording measuring instrument. 1,031,042.

Rectifier system. 1,112,266.

Refrigerating apparatus. 2,148,412.

Refrigerator. 1,982,375.

Refrigerator apparatus. 2,056,646.

Regulating means for systems of electrical distribution. 807,943.

Regulator and cut-out. 1,260,647.

Regulator and cut-out. 1,260,649.

Regulator for electrical circuits. 1,146,926.

Regulator system. 1,543,696.

Safety device for starting motors. 1,130,573.

Short-wave antenna. 1,768,666.

Side lamp for automobiles. 1,296,482.

Signaling system. 1,563,342.

Spark-advancer. 1,171,594.

Spark-advancing mechanism. 1,466,272.

Spring-abutment for measuring instruments. 798,168.

Starting and ignition machine. 1,237,172.

Starting-electrode for vapor electric devices. 1,194,143.

Starting means for vapor electric devices. 1,166,186.

Starting means for vapor-rectifying devices. 975,399.

Starting mechanism for automobiles. 1,175,342.

Starting mechanism for automobiles. 1,215,490.

Starting mechanism for automobiles. 1,246,057.

Starting mechanism for automobiles. 1,385,983.

Starting mechanism for gas-engines. 1,317,269.

Starting mechanism for gas engines. 1,370,005.

Starting mechanism for internal-combustion engines. 1,413,829.

Starting motor for gas-engines. 1,246,718.

Starting system for automobiles. 1,246,717.

Starting system for automobiles. 1,274,992.

Storage-battery regulator. 1,146,924.

Switch for electric circuits. 803,212.

System for vapor electric apparatus. 931,114.

System of distribution. 1,108,886.

System of distribution for mercury-vapor rectifiers. 931,115.

System of electric-motor control. 1,024,557.

System of electrical distribution. 1,138,637.

System of electrical distribution. 1,159,904.

System of electrical distribution. 1,224,143.

System of electrical distribution. 1,320,083.

System of electrical distribution and regulation. 1,112,438.

Telephone circuits and apparatus. 1,693,401.

Telephone device. 1,660,864.

Telephone device. 1,680,409.

Telephone receiver. 1,819,499.

Television apparatus. 1,991,082.

Television system. 1,853,661.

Time switch. 2,121,585.

Transformer. 829,572.

Transformer. 841,076.

Transformer. 1,005,163.

Transformer for use with current-rectifying apparatus. 1,123,248.

Transmission system. 1,939,042.

Tuning system of antennae. 1,502,848.

Vapor-arc rectifier. 1,264,276.

Vapor current-rectifying device. 1,234,875.

Vapor electric apparatus. 1,285,947.

Vapor electric device. 1,101,523.

Vapor electric device. 1,159,900.

Vapor-rectifier. 1,204,411.

Vehicle-lighting system. 1,171,595.

Volt-ampere meter. 1,571,234.

Voltage-regulator. 923,627.

Wattmeter. 1,067,311.

Wireless antenna system. 1,640,534.

Wireless receiving cabinet. 1,655,985.

Wireless receiving set. 1,664,192.

Wireless telephone system. 1,528,047.

Wireless transmission system. 1,586,653.